you made it! We hope that with this book, we can make bread baking fun, inspire new bakers and offer a challenge to serious bread enthusiasts. Kneaded. Foreward. Bread is a popular food. This issue will introduce new and healthy recipes for baking bread. Complete with application examples. Now even though I have been co-moderating and administering a popular bread baking forum,. The Fresh Loaf (forfindsebullperf.ga), since.
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A celebration of the art of baking bread and the great bakers of New York Gity by students at Parsons School ol Designn who made this book: David Blumenthal. Your new Cuisinart™ Convection Bread Maker makes it easy – it will make . Use rapid rise yeast in place of standard yeast in recipe and add vital wheat gluten. Scant cups of OCCIDENT equal full cups of other flour. Always measure OCCIDENT. Flour after sifting. Success In Bread Making. Depends Upon. Good Recipe.
LoafNest Community Recipe Development You will be happy to learn that the recipe development is going well. All of the recipes that will be presented in the LoafNest recipe book are easy to use, easy to reproduce and follow the simple LoafNest flow.
LoafNest Flow for artisan bread without touching the flour with hands, based on the no knead method All recipes follow the same LoafNest flow, sometimes with a slight twisting and tweaking! You will know it instantly every time when it is tweaked and how is it tweaked.
You will know the flow instantly. The aim is to get everyone of us to get healthy and beautiful breads at home as often as we need it, without much effort, through simple recipes. The book will be simple.
With three sections. First section belongs to normal breads playing with various types and portions of flours, and the second section is about flavorful breads, and the third section is about the sweet nutty breads! Second section is awesome! Flavorful Breads These breads are beautiful, tasty and so easy to make! Well, the breads from the first and third sections are tasty and beautiful and easy to make as well.
But the idea of adding the flavors, added a different dimension to the breads! They are so simple and elegant, it felt like an invention. The idea is simple! Peter Barabas in south Manchester, who reported that Knead to Know gave him the confidence and the knowledge to start a small scale, subscription-based home bakery.
Gary Mercer in Surrey has also taken the first step towards starting a bakery, selling his wares at a local school fayre as part of his market research. What readers have said For feedback collected in February from of the first Knead to Know readers, click here. Here are a few highlights of earlier feedback from just some of the hundreds and hundreds of Knead to Know readers. It provides me with advice and accounts of other bakers' experiences. Most importantly it provides me with contacts which I have used continually.
Pragmatic approaches and honest discussions about the pitfalls and costs of setting up a Real Bread bakery. Fantastically inspirational - I can't wait to get started! It's just so practical having advice on all aspects of setup in one simple book. This book got me even more excited than ever before. I am now selling weekly at the local Country Market and two local independent shops.
Since dry yeast is more expensive than fresh, if a great amount of baking is being done I would consider using fresh yeast. I sometimes take a 1-pound cake of compressed yeast, crumble it up, and keep it in the freezer, well wrapped. The evening before I intend to use it, I break off a small bit and refrigerate it for use the next morning. It keeps quite well frozen. If you freeze fresh yeast or are unsure of any yeast you use, I recommend proofing it by adding a pinch of sugar and dissolving it in a small portion of the warm liquid called for in the recipe.
Rapid rise yeast, which supposedly acts twice as fast as regular yeast, in my opinion will give you breads that are half as good. Bread with full-bodied flavor and aroma requires dough that has been fully aged.
Like good wine, it should not be rushed; it requires slow, full rising, as described in the recipes. I feel that the higher temperatures called for when using rapid rise yeast are too hot and adversely affect the finished product. If you do use rapid rise yeast, use it in the same way as the regular type.
Bakeries sometimes rush a dough with the addition of extra yeast; the results are never superior. Sometimes people suggest double amounts of yeast, or more, for quick results. Save your precious time and energy and bring home a loaf of store-bought bread.
Having gone through the work of mixing, kneading, rising, baking, and cooling, you are entitled to a quality result for your efforts. Even if you have never baked before, your very first attempt will result in a wonderful bread if you follow directions carefully.
Eggs When added to bread dough, eggs enrich the dough, add flavor and color, and soften and expand the bread as it rises, making it more tender. In my bakery we used fresh eggs, shelled frozen eggs available as whole eggs, enriched eggs one extra yolk to two, or more whole eggs , egg whites, and sugared yolks.
In a bread recipe where one egg is used per each cup of liquid, two egg whites or a cholesterol-free egg substitute may replace one whole egg.
This does not necessarily hold true when a greater proportion of eggs to liquid is called for. Do not be afraid to experiment. Salt When used in yeast doughs, salt retards the growth of yeast cells. This allows you to control the aging of the dough in addition to adding flavor to the bread. Recognizing the need to reduce the amount of sodium in the diet, I have cut back the salt in most of the bread recipes to the minimum ratio of 1 teaspoon salt to 3 cups flour.
Of course, you can vary these amounts to suit your own taste. Nondairy Substitutes Nondairy substitutes for milk, sour cream, and yogurt can be used to convert dairy recipes to pareve nondairy. Brands seem to change over time.
When preparing pareve recipes, I currently use the certified kosher Coffee Rich brand creamer in either powder or liquid form in place of milk. Experiment with these products and seek out new products on the Internet.
For a nondairy streusel substitute, use margarine or shortening for butter. Skim Milk Powder The addition of milk to bread doughs imparts flavor, adds color to the crust, and acts as a tenderizer. Milk is high in protein, calcium, and important vitamins. In this book, skim milk powder is used.
Among its many advantages are that it is easy to store and it can be mixed in dry. Nutritionally, it is more desirable than whole milk, since it provides all the benefits without the fat. There is no discernible difference in flavor in the finished bread, whether you use skim milk powder or whole milk. Buttermilk is also available as a powder. It can be added dry and mixed with the rest of the ingredients.
See this page for an easy way to make your own buttermilk using skim milk powder. Shortening, Fats, and Oils Shortenings, fats, or vegetable oils, when used in bread dough, tenderize the bread, make it soft or flaky, add flavor especially with butter or olive oil , improve texture and bite, and add keeping qualities to the finished bread due to moisture retention.
A hard fat or shortening as opposed to a liquid produces a finer texture and more tolerance in the rising. Because people are becoming more conscious about the merits of consuming liquid vegetable oils, I have tried to substitute liquid vegetable oils for hard fats, both vegetable and animal.
Often you can substitute measure for measure. Those recipes that are much better with hard fats can generally be changed to half hard, half liquid. Experiment—that is one of the bonuses of baking your own bread. Also note that in the current trend to remove trans fat from our diet, the manufacturer of Crisco brand shortening has introduced a shortening containing no trans fat—a considerable reduction since the original version includes 12 grams of fat per tablespoon of which 3 grams, or 25 percent, are trans fat.
The product produces satisfactory results, though not quite like the original. When baking certain cakes and cookies where all shortening or half and half butter and shortening is recommended, I suggest first trying half butter and half vegetable oil, such as olive oil, safflower oil, or canola oil.
Sources It is somewhat fruitless to try to include specific information about sources of ingredients for the baker.
Sources disappear with time, sales policies are altered, and what is available in one part of the country is not in another.
Some national flour mills merchandise their flour using different brand names in different areas. Conversely, flours with the same brand name can differ from one region to another. Seek these out in your own area. Call wholesale bakery supply houses and inquire if they sell small amounts to walk-in customers. Ask for recommendations. Many retail bakers will sell fresh ingredients in small amounts.
Cultivate a working relationship with these folks. A bakery that does not make its own sour rye bread will probably not have clear flour see this page on hand, but they might be able to put you in touch with someone who does.
Neighborhood food co-ops often have ingredients not found elsewhere. Natural foods stores and gourmet shops are good sources, too.
Large markets in rural areas are sometimes as well stocked as wholesale suppliers. Seek them out. Markets in ethnic areas are always excellent sources. Network: ask friends who bake or those who are gourmet cooks.
If you find a flour that is hard to come by, take home an extra supply, because it may not be available in warm weather, or the supplier may receive only one or two shipments per year.
Ask the store manager when in doubt. Flour can be stored for months in a cool, dry area and can be refrigerated or frozen. These days you can download just about anything on the Internet, including flour. Correcting Misconceptions Over the years, neighborhood bakeries have adopted many modern techniques and labor-saving devices, making many traditional steps and old ways unnecessary.
This book gives you the benefit of the best small-bakery recipes presented in the simplest and most efficient form. However, a few misconceptions are so widespread as to warrant addressing them here.
Proofing Yeast In years past we always proofed the yeast—proved that it was active—before adding it to the mix. This was accomplished by dissolving the yeast in a portion of water with a pinch of sugar to see if the yeast began to bubble upon standing. With modern yeast, we no longer proof unless the potency is suspect.
This holds true for the active dry yeast packets used in the home kitchen. If the yeast is not outdated, there is no need to proof it. Mixing can then proceed at once. If the water feels warm to your fingertips, it will be fine for the yeast. Use a thermometer the first few times, and you will quickly learn to judge the proper temperature by feel. Another mistaken practice is to add sugar to the warm water when dissolving yeast in the normal mixing process.
It was thought that the yeast had to be fed to begin activation. Warm water alone will awaken the yeast, which will feed on natural sugars in the flour. Nothing additional is required. Scalding Milk I am often surprised to see a modern recipe that calls for scalding whole milk in a yeast dough. The reason for this is very simple: there is an enzyme present in whole milk that is able to destroy the yeast cells, causing the dough to rise poorly or preventing it from rising at all.
Bakers very quickly learned that by scalding the milk, the enzyme was destroyed. In addition, all processed whole milk is pasteurized, and most whipping cream now available is ultra-pasteurized, meaning sterilized. Pasteurization and sterilization are heat processes, and the enzymes in question are no longer present in our milk, so there is no reason to scald it. Unless raw whole milk is used, you may safely ignore a requirement for scalding milk in any bread recipe.
Thinking this through, it should become apparent that powdered milk has been manufactured with a heat process that destroys the enzyme. When a formula specifies skim milk powder, it is used as a dry ingredient and the dough is made in the normal manner.
Vinegar in Sourdough Bread Sourdough breads are made from a sour, or starter, which is a batter of flour and water allowed to ferment under controlled conditions and used as a base for making the breads. I am appalled by recipes that call for vinegar to be incorporated into the dough to create sourdough bread and rolls.
Sourdough breads and rolls made from a proper sour, or starter, have no vinegary flavor. The sourdough process adds a pre-fermented base to the bread dough, which results in a dough that is more aged and a crumb with more moisture.
It creates better texture and produces superior flavor. Sour, fermented by wild yeast present in the air, was used as leavening to make breads rise as far back as ancient Egypt. It often produced erratic results. With the advent of modern yeast, we use the sour for flavor and aging and rely on yeast for controlled leavening. Some artisan breads should only be naturally fermented. Hand a baker a slice of bread and he or she will most likely smell the bread before tasting.
Smell the aroma of real sour rye or sourdough wheat bread and you will instantly become an expert at recognizing it. Also included in this chapter are directions for the preparation of ingredients such as homegrown sprouts, toasted nuts, pumpernickel color, and homemade buttermilk, and instructions for shaping loaves. Almond Paste Almond paste has many uses in baking and pastry making.
In commercial bakeries, it is often replaced by kernel paste, made from apricot pits, or macaroon paste, a mixture of almond paste and kernel paste. Almond paste is expensive, and the supermarket variety of which the canned version is best is not as good as the commercial product. Try to download this at a local bakery, but make sure that you are not paying for pure almond paste if what you are downloading is kernel paste.
You can make your own almond paste as follows, but be aware that it will only approximate the real almond paste. In a heavy saucepan, heat the remaining 2 tablespoons water. Add the sugar and corn syrup; heat slowly until the sugar melts, then bring to a boil. Cover and boil for 3 minutes. Remove the lid but do not stir. Remove the pan from the heat and add the almond extract.
With the processor running, slowly add the hot syrup to the almonds until the paste forms a ball and tries to ride up the blade. Allow to cool. Refrigerate in a sealed plastic bag or tightly covered container for at least 1 week to allow the flavor to develop.
Bring to room temperature before use. Altus European in origin, altus is little known outside of bakeries. When introduced to altus, many people think of it as a method of using up stale bread. However, as with many old-fashioned techniques, bakers find that it enhances the desirable qualities of certain breads. Its use seems to have begun in the making of pumpernickel doughs, and the best of these breads often contain altus. Altus is a mash made by slicing leftover rye bread and trimming away the crusts, soaking the trimmed bread in water for several hours or overnight under refrigeration, then squeezing it dry.
Added in small amounts to bread dough, altus intensifies the distinctive flavor of pumpernickel and rye bread and helps them retain moisture. When using altus, allow for a little extra flour in the recipe. The mash keeps well, covered, in the refrigerator. Butter Substitutes Although butter imparts a special flavor to baked goods, in recipes for cakes or pastries commercial bakers often substitute shortening for butter, measure for measure.
In delicate pastries such as croissants, shortening is often substituted for half the butter to make them flakier. This also makes them less fragile, allowing them to be packaged and transported more safely. Oils often do not give the same results as hard fats and cannot be substituted indiscriminately.
However, when baking breads or yeast cakes, in most cases half of the fat can safely be replaced with liquid oils. Sometimes butter flavor is used to enhance the flavor or aroma of baked goods, and butter-flavored shortenings, oils, and sprays are becoming more widely available for the home baker.
Cut and Stipple When most breads are ready for the oven, the tops are either scored with a sharp knife or single-edge razor blade, or they are stippled docked with a series of small holes made with a skewer or pointed blade, allowing the expanding gases in the loaf to escape without causing the crust to burst.
Where appropriate, recipes in this book suggest a method or pattern. The fashion in which the cuts are made influences the appearance and often the flavor of the bread. In cutting French or Italian bread, the slash is not made vertically. The blade is held at an angle of not more than 30 degrees, and the cut is made as if slitting under the skin of the bread.
When the bread rises in the oven, this type of slash swells and the crust thickens along the lip. The thickening of the swollen crust is referred to as bloom, which gives the bread its traditional appearance and makes it crisp and chewy. French bread may have from three to ten slashes, the number determined by the length of the bread.
Other cuts or holes allow the bread to expand and form a design, sometimes quite intricate. Round breads may have a tic-tac-toe pattern; others may be stippled with a serious of holes. Most breads are cut in an orthodox manner that serves to identify them. When you have a bit of experience, you should feel free to try some ideas of your own.
Occasionally, the crust will burst regardless of your best efforts. Do not despair. When we baked our Jewish Corn Bread in my bakery, knowledgeable shoppers would seek out a loaf with a split crust. This part of the bread is remarkably crunchy. It was often selected by the bakers, myself included, for their own table. Cutting In Several different methods can be used to blend together shortening and flour or sugar without creaming or aerating the two, a process termed cutting in.
After cutting in, the shortening should be thoroughly distributed; the mixture will have a grainy appearance. You can use a pastry blender, two knives, or a fork, but you may find it easiest to rub the mixture between your fingers. Dough, Mixing and Kneading All of the yeast-raised breads in this book can be mixed by hand. I suggest that your first efforts be done by hand, which will provide you with a basic feeling for the doughs.
Choose one of two methods—the straight dough method or the sponge method.
Neither is difficult. The exact temperature is not critical. If the water feels warm to the touch, the yeast will activate. Add the ingredients as specified in the recipe. The precise amount of flour will be determined while kneading. Stir with a wooden spoon until the dough forms up into a ball and begins to come away from the sides of the bowl.
Turn out onto a lightly floured board. Scrape down the sides of the bowl and add the scrapings to the dough. Knead as described below. Sponge Method This method pre-ferments part of the dough, resulting in a moister and more flavorful loaf.
The sponge doubles in volume in 20 to 45 minutes, depending upon room temperature, and this takes the place of the first rise see this page. Sprinkle the yeast over warm water and stir in a portion of the flour until smooth. Cover and set aside until the mixture doubles in volume or appears bubbly or spongy. Stir in the balance of the ingredients and mix the dough as in the method above.
When the dough is fully kneaded, allow it to rest, then shape it into loaves. The amount of time from start to shaping the loaf is often less than in the straight dough method.
Kneading Kneading may be done on any clean, flat surface, such as a countertop, worktable, or kitchen table. It is important to work at a convenient, comfortable height—one that allows you to knead with arms extended so that you can press down from the shoulders without bending excessively. I prefer working with a hardwood board placed on the countertop.
Wood makes a good work surface and is easily cleaned. A marble slab is excellent and is always cool. After mixing as above, turn out the dough onto a lightly floured work surface. The dough will be wet and sticky. Keep your hands dusted with flour. With your palms, push down from the shoulders, turn the dough a quarter turn, fold it in half, press away, turn, fold, press, turn, fold, press—working the dough up into a ball.
Use a plastic or metal dough scraper to keep the surface of the board clean. Work the scrapings back into the dough. When the dough is no longer sticky to the touch, pick it up and stretch it to develop the elasticity. Knead once or twice and stretch again. Repeat this several times. Then lift the dough and drop it down onto the work surface, lift once more, turn over, and drop it again.
Repeat—stretching, dropping, and kneading. This serves to aerate the dough. Some folks say that this also helps work out tensions. If the dough is stiff and unyielding, soften it with cool water added 1 teaspoon at a time.
Extra time is required to incorporate the water into the dough, so be patient. Press your hand down on the dough; if it comes away clean it contains sufficient flour.
Continue to turn, fold, and press until the dough feels smooth and elastic 8 to 10 minutes or more. As the dough becomes fully developed, it should come to life and push back, not feel limp. The kneading process can be a relaxing and personally satisfying endeavor.
Tear off a small piece of dough as you begin kneading. Try to stretch it and it will tear. Repeat when the dough is ready, and it will stretch beautifully.
If you hold a small piece of dough, fully stretched, up to the light, you will see a pattern of fine, even lines in the dough. This is the gluten, coming to life under the pressure of your hands. Stand Mixer A stand mixer is capable of producing a better bread dough than is possible by hand or with a food processor. You will find that the recipes in this book often require more mixing time when a stand mixer is used.
Kneading with the mixer allows bakers to make a stiffer dough and develop the gluten to its full strength. This results in a larger, better-textured loaf. In bakeries, ice water is often used to control the dough temperature so that the dough may be kneaded longer and developed further. In summer and in hot climates, do this at home by using ice water and cold ingredients.
There is some leeway in the dough temperature. Going over by a few degrees is not fatal. In bakeries it is not unusual to mix some doughs for 25 minutes. If you feel that the dough has become too hot, cover and allow it to rise in the refrigerator. It is important when mixing bread dough with a stand mixer to use only a heavy-duty machine with a minimum capacity of 8 cups of flour.
Stand mixers do a better job of kneading when operated at their ideal capacity. Whereas most cookbooks call for the same volume of ingredients whether mixing by hand or with a stand mixer, here you will find separate recipes for using a stand mixer, producing larger yields. You will quickly find out for yourself how much better your breads are when using these methods. As a bonus, you will often get three loaves for the same effort as you previously expended for only two.
The hand-mixed recipe can always be used in the stand mixer when only two breads are desired. The bowl is liable to jump off the saddle, or the beater or hook could come loose if not properly installed.
When mixing a heavy dough, you sometimes have to hold the machine down with your hand to keep it from walking or jumping. In bakeries, most bread doughs are mixed with a dough hook, but I have found that with most home mixers the hook is not able to stir the liquid and dry ingredients together until they are combined or are solid enough for the kneading process to begin. The flat beater is then removed, the dough scraped back into the bowl, and the dough hook inserted.
The dough is then kneaded with the mixer until it is fully developed. To determine kneading time, start when the dough stops flopping around and the dough hook bites into the mass.
KitchenAid has a newly configured dough hook that kneads bread doughs without having to use the flat beater. New for me, that is; the new design showed up in the s—shows how long their machines last! The change is imperceptible to the eye, but it allows the dough to be mixed with only the dough hook and it also develops the dough more quickly. Some of the recipes for stiff doughs may strain your mixer. Always begin with the smallest amount of flour called for in the recipe, holding back 2 cups of flour.
Mix until the flour is barely incorporated, then add the reserved amount in several additions. The mixer can get very warm, but it is safe to continue mixing. If necessary, keep the dough a little softer than called for. You can always process part of the dough separately. You also have the option of finishing kneading by hand. If experience proves that a stand mixer recipe is too large for your mixer, use the amounts called for in the smaller, hand-mixed recipe.
Use care, keeping your fingers away from the edge of the bowl. Once coated, the dough can be turned out, or it may be left in the bowl, covered, and allowed to rise. Food Processor The basic procedure for mixing bread with a food processor is as follows: Yeast is softened in warm water in the work bowl.
Half the flour, the other dry ingredients, and ice water are added. The machine is run until a dough forms. The rest of the flour is added 1 cup at a time, pulsing until the dough is thoroughly mixed.
At the speed of this machine, often the mixing time is a minute or less. Ice water brings down the temperature of the dough, allowing it to be processed for 2 to 3 minutes or longer. Ordinarily, a standard 4-cup food processor has the capacity to mix one loaf of bread. Following the method used in these recipes, it is possible to produce two loaves. If the machine strains and overheats, it will stop automatically. After cooling down for several minutes, the machine can be restarted without any harm.
When mixing a large batch of dough, if the machine begins to labor, stop, remove the dough, divide it in half, and process each half separately. When each is mixed, place both on a work surface and knead the two pieces together. Dredging Whenever fruits or nuts are added into a batter, they tend to drift to the bottom when inserted in the oven and before the batter begins to solidify.